How does waste management work

waste 2Bin 2Bwrong 2Bplace Guidebest Compost Techniques.

How does waste management work: why it is Important

Waste is merely a raw material in the wrong place

This Topic Cover:

Why Solid waste management is essential for urban centres ?

Current managementstructure  

Caveats of present waste management process.


Solid waste management techniques.

Use of compost making Machine.

Large scale facilities that employ composting techniques. 

waste 2Bin 2Bwrong 2Bplace Guidebest Compost Techniques.


Mumbai metropolitan region is has an area that consists of the state capital of Maharashtra which is Mumbai and its satellite towns. The region has an area of 4355 km square and is one of the most populated regions in the world. Mumbai district has an area of 157 km square. Mumbai being a financial hub of the country attracts investment as well as various business resulting in an influx of people for employment purposes.  Inspite of small area Mumbai has a population of 12,442,373 (2011 census figures) and the population of total Mumbai metropolitan region is 18,394,182 (2011 census figures). The following Map shows the extent of Mumbai Metropolitan region. 

Mumbai Metropolition Region Guidebest Compost Techniques.

Municipal Corporations 

Municipal Councils 


Kulgaon- Badlapur 



Kalyan – Dombivali


Navi Mumbai 


Mira Bhayandar 


Bhiwandi – Nizampur 








The below table shows whether or not a municipal corporation in Mumbai Metropolitan area has a separate department concerning to solid waste management or not. 


Municipal Corporation 

SWM department 





Navi Mumbai 


Kalyan Dombivali 


Mira Bhayandar 


Bhiwandi – Nizampur








Similarly the below table displays whether the municipal Council has a department dedicated to solid waste management or not.

Municipal Council 

SWM Department 

Kulgaon Badlapur 













No (But called as Sanitary Department)

Kharghar (CIDCO not municipal Council)




Thus we can see which of the following Municipal corporations and Municipal councils have a Solid waste management department. Various Municipal council and municipal corporations that do not have a separate department of Solid waste Management put the responsibility of waste management under  Public work department or Public health department. 

However the MMRDA or the Mumbai metropolitan region development authority has already a department dedicated to SWM and plans for a new waste management facility are already undertaken at Taloja (Near Kharghar) which is projected to dispose 1800 metric ton waste for the next 25 years per day. 

Why Solid waste management is essential for urban centres ?

While we can debate about the pros and con of having a separate department concerning the solid waste management it is highly essential we understand the need of waste management at all. 

  • Mumbai has already a high population of 12,442,373* (Mumbai census 2011) and it is estimated to grow in the next 3 decades to 42,400,000 approx in 2050. Such high levels of population will eventually create huge waste generation. Currently with 2011 population levels the per capita waste generation is 0.63 kg. Mumbai is generating 7800 MT waste every day.  

  • The current per capita waste generation is estimated to rise to 0.7 kg per person in the year 2025. 

Let us also compare the waste generation of Mumbai compared with other regions nearby.

Municipal Corporation

Quantity of solid waste generated MT/Day





Kalyan – Dombivali




Navi Mumbai  


Mira – Bhayandar


It should also be noted that of of the total waste generated it is estimated that about 45% of the waste generated is biodegradable and the rest is non biodegradable. 

Current management structure  


Waste management responsibility is taken formally by the MCGM. The current mechanism involves collection , transport and disposal strategy. Waste is collected from different areas in Mumbai and sent to disposal at 3 dumping ground (Deonar, Mulund and Gorai )sites which are currently services the city and are already overburdened with waste.  The following mechanism explains the present structure. 

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The garbage collectors employed by various housing societies, entities etc. collect the garbage on door to door basis and dump it near the community bins strategically placed at various areas. There are more than 5800 community bins in Mumbai alone. Here manual or mechanical compactors are used to collect waste from such community bins and and then sent to a transfer station. In case of Mumbai the transfer stations are located at Mahalaxmi, Kurla and Versova. The transfer stations are basically stations for smaller vehicles that bring the garbage from point sources and community bins. The garbage is thus transferred from smaller vehicles to larger vehicles capable of transferring the waste towards the disposal sites. 

Various types of vehicles are used to transport the garbage. Those include open flat-bed trucks, covered trucks, mobile compactors, tarpaulin covered vehicles . 

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Tarpaulin garbage (construction debris carrier)

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A garbage truck (closed bed )

In Mumbai 


Mode of Transportation 



Garbage trucks



Mobile tempos 



Tarpaulin covered garbage truck



About 95% of waste generated in the city is disposed in such manner. 

Caveats of present waste management process.


Dumping grounds 


The current dumping grounds in Mumbai are in Deonar, Mulund and Gorai. The combined area of the 3 landfills is 140 hectares. Area of Mumbai in comparison is 60340 hectares. Thus landfills constitute only 0.22% of the total area of Mumbai. The term landfilling refers to the practice where waste is being disposed and stored under more or less controlled conditions. Principles of landfilling include compaction, leveling of waste and final covering by earth, leachate collection system and landfill gas extraction. However due to space constraints and opposition from various citizens to create landfills spaces makes this option a far less viable option in the future.


Concerns regarding landfills 

  • Effects biodiversity as species that thrive on refuse (rats, crows etc.) compete with other local species thus endangering them.

  • Leachate production.

  • Health impacts for nearby residing residents.(landfills operate as mosquitoes breeding grounds)

  • Unpleasant visual effects due to the sites ruining natural landscape and the protest of citizens towards landfills as they cause problem of vermin, spread of diseases and also lower property prices.


Debris Disposal


Mumbai generates about 2000 tons of construction debris. As transportation of such debris is deemed to be expensive towards the dumping sites, various construction activities in Mumbai that generate waste will use loopholes and illegal ways to dump the construction debris. Due to lack of space in Mumbai the waste has to be carried off towards long distances. This increases the transportation cost leading to the business becoming ‘unprofitable’. Thus such debris is dumped into the creeks which affects the ecosystem of mangroves. The ecosystem of creeks in regions of Vasai, Gorai, Mankhurd are already endangered due to illegal dumping of waste. 


Open burning, landfill fires resulting in deterioration of air quality- 


On January 27th 2016 Mumbai witnessed a smog generated due to a mysterious fire that started in the deonar dumping grounds. The fire was huge enough to cause a smog in the city for 3 days and was visible by satellites in outer space. Regions in Mumbai had seen huge levels of pollution levels with the air quality index reaching 347 which comes into hazardous category seriously affecting health of citizens in Mumbai. As a result schools were closed for 2 days with citizens advised to remain at homes. 

There is also the problem of open waste burning in various parts of India. Open waste burning primarily occurs due to the following reasons. 


  • Open burning by rag pickers to isolate metals from waste. 

  • Open burning by residents and and municipal workers to reduce MSW.

  • Open burning by homeless people for warmth generation at night. 


While NGT has imposed a ban on open burning of waste with a fine upto 25000 rupees. The law is generally not implemented. 


A 2010 study by NEERI in Mumbai conducted about air quality assessment has stated about 2% of total MSW waste generated is burnt on the streets and about 10 % of the waste is burnt in landfills.

MSW burning results in largest contribution towards Carbon Monoxide and PM (particulate matter ). 

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Sourced from

Thus as explained in the above pie chart open burning is the 3rd largest contributor towards CO pollution in Mumbai. 


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Water pollution- 


In landfills biological degradation of waste results in generation of leachate. Such leachate can pollute the water sources nearby the landfill areas and may also pollute the groundwater.  k QSfhLePpDk hzbUsEyJJvpsvSYzi56MSRTxqaiAaTPuZEKhpi9CZEYyx96DpvSYRS4qZ5RMZV5eaiaLBEY0KOrQ3EVq99WNoZszZ8oLJjx1dJsXkZaIIsaDiaeakI9orMGEMWV=w400 h328 Guidebest Compost Techniques.


Leachates are generally formed due to anaerobic decomposition of biodegradable waste which is often mixed with heavy metals (such as chromium, lead, nickel )developed from inorganic waste. Such metals increase the solubility of iron and manganese in groundwater thus increasing the concentration resulting in increased groundwater pollution.


Impact on Climate change 

Climate change caused due to anthropogenic activities is one of the biggest problems the world has to face. Due to waste storage at landfills in particular, there are incidences of methane releases. Such methane released due to solid waste management operations should be captured. Thus organic waste which is decomposed at landfills have the problem of anaerobic decomposition leading to formation of methane gas. Thus to prevent methane formation it is essential to avoid an-aerobic decomposition. 


Solid waste management techniques. 


The following are the ways by which the problem of Solid waste management are currently been studied and even implemented. 


Waste to Energy (WTE) 


Refers to method of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from waste, usually through combustion. The combusted waste generates steam which could be utilised to drive a steam turbine thus resulting in energy generation. It also avoids the problem of leachate seeping underground thus reducing groundwater contamination. But while the method seems great at first glance it also has its own caveats. First and foremost waste to energy needs huge quantities of waste generated and later to be incinerated resulting in a possibility to divert resources from recycling plants. Also high amount of wet waste generation also results in difficulty in burning the waste.


Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) 


A fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating combustible MSW. RDF can be used for industrial purposes instead of coal. RDF are pellets created from trash which can act as a viable alternative for burning purposes. Input materials needed for RDF consists of waste that have a high caloric value. 

E.g- paper industry rejects, Plastic packaging, High caloric plastics, Mixed waste from household, industry. 

Concerns regarding Refuse derived fuel 

  • The cost effectiveness of the process to generate electricity.

  • Toxic and polluting gases emitted by such fuel generation and use. 

  • Also the problem of using mostly dry waste for power generation which again could be used for recycling purposes. Wet waste mostly needs to be segregated from RDF plants.  So it basically solves only a part of problem.

Currently BMC has floated tenders for deonar dumping ground for a setup of a waste to energy plant. But due to lack of segregation deonar dumping grounds which can cause reduced calorific value of the combustible waste (due to mixture of wet organic waste) there are not many parties interested to take up the challenge citing, economic feasibility of the project.

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Recycling is perhaps the best sustainable long term solution for the waste management issues. The inorganic waste collected can be considered as a fodder for recycling. 

Plastic, metal, Paper, E waste are easily recyclable and can be reused further. However Recycling is mostly undertaken by formal sector.


Generally speaking, Plastic, glass and metal is exchanged with kabadiwalas at household levels. The kabadiwalas act as a intermediate between waste processing centres. The rest of plastic and metal collected come from a array of informal workers called as ragpickers which also include children as well. Mumbai is home to one the biggest slums in the world called Dharavi slums which surprisingly works as an industrial recycling unit as well. Dharavi’s 13th compound an area which is associated with recycling since decades. It currently employs more than 5000 people in the recycling industry. The area acts as a big segregation plant with collection of plastic, plastic drums, iron scrap, cotton scrap, empty bottles, glass etc.

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Composting signifies biological decomposition of organic material. Microorganisms decompose the organic material to a stabilized product, i.e. compost. The end product can be used as soil conditioner. The compost generated consists of useful bacteria which can help plants with numerous benefits such as nitrogen fixation, helps soil for water retention, adds nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Thus benefits of compost are numerous and unlike the above alternatives this method seems viable and sustainable in the long run. It is also in sync with nature in general. Composting has the following benefits to agriculture and environment. 




  • Directs waste away from landfills resulting in less accumulation of garbage and reduces leachate production (which could contaminate underground resources )

  • Reduces foul odours 

  • Avoids methane production in landfills 

  • Helps in afforestation programmes and increases the survivability of plants. 

  • Reduces need for landfill space*



  • Helps maintain soil ph levels 

  • Adds water retention capacity of the soil

  • Adds organic matter, humus which supplements the soil.

  • Reduces fertiliser requirement 

  • Provides a market for compost making and selling thus creating an extra income for the farmers 

  • Compost attracts earthworms thus helping in better soil aeration.

  • Helps restore soil conditions as microbes are affected with high usage of chemical fertilisers. 

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Composting seems a feasible way to solve some of the problems associated with waste management. The BMC has given a deadline on 2nd of october 2017 regarding waste management. The circular stated that entities that generate more than 100kg of wet- waste every day should install within their own capacities to dispose the wet waste. Therefore a lot of entities have made various attempts to segregate the wet waste generated at source from the inorganic waste and utilised the wet waste generated for composting processes. The following techniqies have been utilised by them. 




Various shopping malls, industrial setups, offices have been using a in-vessel waste composting machine which is basically a mechanical machine that works using electricity, manual labour to convert the wet waste generated into useable compost. The following image shows the machine which is used. 

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* A typical in vessel composting machine based on electric power. 


Such machines have capacities ranging from low as 5 kg per day to 500 kg per day of wet waste to compost. These machines are the fastest when it comes to create compost. It usually converts the waste into usable soil additives within a 24 hour time.  However the major drawback of the machine is the requirement of electric power which adds to the cost and also the initial capital investment needed to purchase these machine. 

Such machines are now being installed at various places in Mumbai from where BMC does not collect waste. 

Another machine that solves the issue of wet waste is an in vessel biogas waste generator

See image. 


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Here the operation is simple, the wet waste generated is put into the plastic tanks and with enough time to generate an-aerobic process slurry and biogas can be collected to generate useful energy. Biogas generated from such processes can be utilised as a gas to produce heat necessary for cooking purposes. However the biogas production takes time to generate and also the machine is bulky which would take up space for large amount of food waste disposal. 

Manual composting machines. 


This types of machines are simple in construction which is basically a rotary device which can be rotated manually with the help of a handle. The idea is to store wet waste in such containers and usable compost will be created naturally in a span of 15-20 days. The machine needs to be rotated in order to ensure better mixing and aeration of the waste. However the process though is less costly takes time to create compost and might not be feasible with large generation of food and wet waste. Also will require ample space. See image.

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* a typical rotary bin composter. There is also an image of shredder which shreds large wet waste particles into smaller particles for faster composting. 

Vermicomposting and Composting pits


Various methods that incorporate wet waste composting through the use of earthworms have also been undertaken. The worms eat away the wet waste and produce usable compost. An suitable environment is provided for vermicomposting to take place. However such composting processes take huge amount of land and time consumption as well.  

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*vermicomposting pile of wet waste. 


Such type of composting is produced by entities which have ample space or property to use such techniques. 


Large scale facilities that employ composting techniques. 


Mechanical biological Treatment plants (MBT ) were installed as early as in 1970’s. They however were not popular due to high amount of imported technologies used and thus running into financial hurdles. Also there was lack of market for the compost generated and process was getting affected during rainfall. Also the mixed nature of waste resulting in metal and hard particles affecting and damaging the machinery at regular intervals. The process involves shredding of wet waste into smaller particles, which would then be dried, shredded and then turned into compost and finally stored for the ‘curing’ process a process where compost temperature is stabilised after a particular time duration ranging from 1 to 3 months depending on the weather. 


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*a plant for compost preparations. 

Navi Mumbai currently has a MBT plant in operation that takes in 300MT of waste per day. Wet waste is segregated using belt drivers and blowers/ Magnets and finally using manual labour for segregation. 


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Concerns regarding compost 

  • While this seems to be a very viable option in regards wet waste management. It does not address the problem fully as inorganic waste cannot be composted.

  • Composting requires pits which use a large area. This creates problems in urban areas where space is already a constraint. 

  • Compost is bulky and expensive to transport.

  • Rate of nutrient release is slow as compared to chemical fertilisers. Therefore not viable for short term benefits of plants. A good solution will require the use of both (chemical fertilisers and organic compost)

  • Agriculture users might have concerns regarding municipal waste as compost due to fear of heavy metals present in compost .Especially in regard with food crops. The fear that unprepared compost could affect crop production needs to be addressed.

  • Subsidies on chemical fertilisers make compost less lucrative as chemical fertilisers are already tried and tested therefore farmers will be skeptical to change.


Other Initiatives –

Advanced Locality Management- 


 Advanced Locality Management (ALM) is local managem

ent of solid waste by citizens who organise themselves to manage their waste. Wet waste is segregated at the source and dry waste is then exchanged with scrap dealers or then disposed off with the collaboration with rag pickers. There are in all 719 ALMs along with 276 vermi-compost pits spread over the city. This way, approximately 20-25 tonnes of garbage per day is prevented from reaching the dump yards. Another encouraging fact is that women run 80% of these ALMs. The goal is to ensure maximum citizen participation . Organisation of

the community, training and initiation is done with the collaboration between residents and MCGM. 



The government should work in hand with BMC and other urban local bodies along with NGOs to tackle the problem of solid waste management in the city. The current changes in BMC circular of 2nd october has spawned a lot of entrepreneurial interest to solve the challenge of solid waste management. Also the government must focus initiatives on source separation, recycling of waste, production and utilization of high quality compost. The government should also educate and inform the citizens the goal of solid waste management and urge local governments to form a department catering to the needs of solid waste management. But the panacea to the issues facing the solid waste management plan lies in making sure waste is segregated at the source. Blue green pledge will ensure the sustainability of urban centre in the long run.


The benefits in finding a sustainable path to solid waste management has multiple advantages. It will impact the quality of life, help battle climate change, generate economic growth, bring informal character associated with the industry to a formal character. It is then and only then the below quote will began to make much more sense.

Waste is merely a raw material in the wrong place



Top 10 benefits of composting

WhatsApp 2BImage 2B2020 11 25 2Bat 2B12.10.10 2BAM Guidebest Compost Techniques.

Top ten benefits of composting to environments-

Do you know Benefits of Composting to environment and Environmental benefits of Composting  we can use composting for our garden, After studying people’s different ways and thoughts, I realized that it is right to convert this wet waste into compost. Everyone should do it, but I was saddened by some people’s questions. In fact, the questions they asked me were the right ones. I will give you the answer. And the question was, what do we do with this composting?

Let us try to answer this question for you today. Today I will tell you ten benefits of composting so that you know how important composting is. First of all, I will explain the term Composting.

What does composting mean:

“Composting is technique to add bacterial Action on waste to create compost.Treasure From Trash is our ideology, which encourages people to breathe new life into trash. It symbolizes the limitless opportunities we have to nourish the planet. It is a way of life in which we turn our daily waste into a greener world for future generations. As a result, you are actually contributing to a better environment.”


Benifits of Composting

Click here- What is Composting ? How to Start composting?

Here are ten benefits of composting:

1. Reduces landfill waste

Benifits of Composting-Reduces Landfil


Globally or if we look around us we realize that the waste problem is the biggest headache, we are looking for different ways to process such waste, when we put the waste in the bin or pit it helps to reduce 25 to 30 percent of that waste. Waste reduction shows that on the one hand, the problem of waste is reduced and on the other hand, this waste is properly converted into organic manure.

2. Improves soil Health.

Improves soil Health-benifits of Composting


Everyone is struggling to make more use of organic manure these days, so using organic manure can improve soil quality by increasing the amount of organic matter and micro nutrients. This will increase the quality of the soil in the soil and maximize the yield of crops in the fields or orchards.

3. Help reduce greenhouse gas emissions:

Benifits of Composting-help reduce greenhouse gas emissions


We have seen many times the rate of disease spread by the stench from the waste, you can make organic manure to curb many harmful gases due to waste, if you can do this you can greatly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

4. Prevention of air pollution:

Benifits of Composting-Prevention of air pollution


Many people are seen burning waste, which releases harmful chemicals into the air from herbicides or garden sprays, which can lead to asthma-like illnesses.

5. Protection from pesticides

Protection from pesticides-benifits of Composting


Composting is considered to be a very important component for protection against pesticides, it enhances the immunity of the plants or the plants you have planted and improves the growth of the crop.

6. Maintains soil pH:

Benifits of Composting-Maintains soil pH


Sometimes it is necessary to maintain the balance of the soil, sometimes the soil is acidic, then you need to maintain the pH in it, composting does not allow other things to affect the plants or crops.


Read Here: Vermicompost is best choice

7. Good crop growth:

Benifits of Composting-Good crop growth


In addition to protecting the crop, composting also helps in good growth of the crop, composting is used to increase the nutrients and immunity of the crop.

8. Increases the water holding capacity of the soil:

Benifits of Composting-Increases the water holding capacity of the soil

Organic manure is a combination of many organic substances, in which we use organic manure to protect the plant and the environment. 

Applying 0.5% to 1.0% organic matter to the soil doubles the water holding capacity of the soil. Organic matter disappears in the process of soil erosion. The supply of organic matter to the soil increases the productivity and water holding capacity of the soil.

9. Donate organic manure and take seedlings:

Benifits of Composting-Donate organic manure

You can make compost by properly disposing of rotten or wasted waste, and in the form of donations, you can replace the seedlings where you get seedlings or give them to the farmer.

10. Saving money:

Benifits of Composting-Saving money


Since the waste problem is a serious problem right now, there are some charges for picking up garbage from a restaurant or a place where a lot of garbage is generated, you can save your money if you can make waste manure.

Also Read- How to Earn Money from Waste?

apart from these benefits of composting , there are several things or benefits of composting to environment, if you really interested in composting then you need to know more Composting method and start to make compost, if any comments please comment in comment box, we try to give you answer.

please share this post to maximum people to know more about composting or benefits of composting. for more details you can visit


Composting | Coffee Grounds | Use for garden

Coffee Ground

Composting With Coffee Grounds-Use for garden

What is Coffee ground?

Coffee grounds use for garden
Used coffee grounds is the result of brewing coffee, and are the final product after preparation of coffee. Used coffee grounds are generally regarded as waste, and is usually thrown away or composted. Coffee grounds are a gift to the environment, we use the use it in a good way to help the plants get nutrients, so the plants get useful nutrition, and the plants grow well. This is one of the many types of composting, you can use coffee ground as the right type of compost.

How does the coffee grounds work?

The coffee grounds used is high in nitrogen and is called a green material, as all the minerals it uses provide significant nutritional benefits for growing plants. You can also use the used coffee ground to make compost, it is used as the most suitable for worms, in which the vermicomposting process works very well.

In gardens:

In gardens, coffee grounds may be used for Composting or as a mulch as they are known to slowly release nitrogen into the soil. The dry coffee grounds contain significant amounts of potassium (11.7 g/kg), magnesium (1.9 g/kg), and phosphorus (1.8 g/kg). They are especially appreciated by worm and acid- loving plants  , although due to acids being leached from the grounds while in use, they typically have a neutral pH. Used coffee ground are particularly noted as a soil amendment. Gardeners have reported the use of used coffee grounds as a slug and snail repellent, but this has not yet been scientifically tested. Some commercial coffee shops run initiatives to prevent the grounds from going to waste, including Starbucks‘ “Grounds for your Garden” project,and community sponsored initiatives exist, such as “Ground to Ground” or the ‘Green Coffee Shop Scheme’ in Cambridgeshire.Coffee grounds are very easy to use, you can grow different types of flowers and fruits in your garden, coffee ground have so much strength that it helps the plants to grow well from the roots, it helps to make very beautiful flowers and fruits.

Where can I get Coffee Ground?

In many cafe-making restaurants like Starbucks, coffee grounds are available for free. You can ask for coffee ground used in such restaurants to be used as compost for your garden. Take it and use it as fertilizer for your garden. when you use this for your garden you will be amazing after plants grow, there are lot of benefits of it.

 benefits of coffee ground:

  1. The benefit of  coffee grounds as a fertilizer is that it adds organic material to the soil, which improves drainage, water retention and aeration in the soil. 
  2. The used coffee ground will also help microorganisms beneficial to plant growth  also it helps to make vermi-composting easy. 
  3. most people are thinking that coffee ground lower the pH  of soil, which is good for acid loving plants. But this is only true for unwashed coffee ground.
  4. Many gardeners like to use used coffee grounds as a mulch for their plants.
there are more benefits of coffee ground for your plants, you just start with coffee grounds you will definitive get more advantageous of it.

There are several benefits of Composting, compost can use for good plant growth, so you can use coffee ground as fertilizer and it help to improve your soil health and plants & give good result. so if you found this is good information about Coffee ground then please Share our post to maximum people to know more about benefits of it,

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What is vermicomposting how to make

vermicompost 2Bwith 2Bvermi Guidebest Compost Techniques.

What is Vermicompost and how to make Vermicomposting

As a farmer’s friend, we have been learning since childhood about Earthworms and useful information about manure. some people cultivate a hobby of making compost while others learn about this fertilizer to increase the fertility of their land, today I am going to give you information about such Vermicomposting. It takes time for us to do our best to maintain the fertility of the soil. Currently we see that the soil fertility or its level has gone down by chemical treatment, we have learned about many technologies to make compost from wet waste, Earthworm manure is also a technology that we convert wet waste into compost, we use Earthworm to convert wet waste into compost. Uses. We say that Earthworm are the friend of the farmers as they help the farmers to increase their yield by increasing the fertility of the soil by producing proper fertilizer from the waste. at present, the government or the government forces the farmers to grow crops using chemical elements to relieve them, but as a result, the soil becomes accustomed to the chemical elements and the land becomes barren and it becomes very difficult to grow crops and this has adverse effects on the environment. The fertility of the soil is declining day by day. As a result, the cost of production has gone up drastically and as we see farmers going into debt, it is very important to increase the fertility of the land. You can increase soil fertility by using Vermicompost.

What is Vermi?

Before we learn more about earthworm manure, let us first know what earthworm is. An Earthworm is an animal that lives in the soil and consumes organic matter. This process takes at least a couple of days, and he keeps only ten percent for his own body and removes the remaining ninety percent. Vermicompost is an important component of organic farming which boosts the immunity of your plants. We use Vermicompost as a granular organic fertilizer containing nutrients, hormones.

Types of Earthworms:

Earthworms-VermicompostingEpigeic : These earthworms live near the surface of the soil. Eighty percent of your food consumes organic matter, while 20 percent consumes soil and other nutrients. Their fertility rate is higher. They are small in size.
Anecic : These earthworms usually live up to a depth of one meter in the soil and eat organic matter and soil. They are medium in size.
Endogeic: These earthworms live up to a depth of three meters or more in the soil. They are long in size, pale in color and have a very low fertility rate. They mostly eat soil.

Due to the characteristics of these three species, Epigeic and  Anecic earthworms are used for composting. The four most useful species are Isenia fetida, Perionics, Eudrilus and Lampito. They eat as much food every day as their own weight.

Suitable species of earthworm for vermicomposting:

Although there are more than 300 species of earthworms, the most important and suitable species of earthworms are mainly Isina foitida, Eudrilus eugenia, Perinoxy, Exovatus, Ferritima elongata. The growth of this variety is good and the process of making the manure takes 40 to 45 days.

Earthworm life cycle:

There are three stages in the life of an earthworm: egg, infancy and adulthood. All of these conditions require moist soil. The life cycle of earthworm depends mainly on its species. Full-grown earthworms have both female and male reproductive organs. The earthworm lays eggs every six to seven days. These eggs contain two to twenty embryos. Egg stage is 7 to 20 days depending on the weather conditions. Worm infestation lasts for two to three months. Then when it comes to maturity, 2 to 3 cm from the mouth. Half a cm apart. The shaped part becomes thicker. This is a sign of aged earthworms. The life span of earthworms is generally two to three years. Full grown earthworms of the genus Isinia fetida are 12 to 15 cm in length. Is. One kilogram normally holds one thousand full grown earthworms. If one thousand such earthworms are taken and reared in a favorable environment, their number in a year is eight lakh and thirteen thousand. Piglets and adult earthworms weigh 2,000 per kg. One hundred kilos of adult earthworms produce one ton of vermicompost per month.

Earthworm conservation and vermicompost production

Site selection and construction

The soil should be well drained when selecting a vermicomposting site. Also, there should not be large trees near the pit, as the roots of these trees absorb the nutrients in the vermicompost. Since shade is required for making vermicompost, the roof should be prepared as follows. When making it, the width should be 5 and a half meters, height in the middle 3 meters, side height 1 meter and length should be 5 to 25 meters as per the requirement – depending on the available manure and the material required for the roof. The roof is 1 m wide and 20 cm wide. Dig two parallel variables of the depth.

Worm food

8 to 9 cm at the bottom of the pasture. Height or thick layer should be filled with kadikachara, mulch, dried grass, sugarcane husk. Sprinkle water on it. 8 to 9 cm. Apply second layer of composted manure, land manure, organic manure. Sprinkle water on it till it gets wet, then release earthworms on this layer. 5 to 6 cm. Apply a thick layer of decomposed organic manure and cow dung. 20 to 30 cm on this layer. Apply manure, land manure, organic manure till height. Sprinkle water on it till it gets wet. This mattress should be covered with gonapat. Sprinkle water on this mattress every day so that the mattress stays moist and vermicompost grows well. In this method vermicompost is prepared in 15 to 20 days. Similarly, household waste, sewage and kitchen waste can also be used.

Also Read: What is Aerobic Composting? how to Start Composting?

The growth of earthworms is best in manure. Their numbers increase exponentially to produce better quality vermicompost. In the same way, earthworm manure is also made from horse manure. The food required for earthworms should be at least partially decomposed. Vermicompost can be made using a mixture of manure and organic manure in half. Earthworms can use wet leaves from the field, vegetable residues, partially decomposed crop residues, press mills from sugar mills. However, when using this food for earthworms, it is necessary to add some amount (one third) of manure. Always grind vermicompost. Slurry from biogas plants can also be used as vermicompost. Before putting earthworms in the pit, apply water on the earthworm feed for four to five days to remove the heat. Fertilizer decomposition should be done using bacterial culture. In addition, when one kg of urea and one kg of superphosphate per ton is mixed in the vermicompost, the decomposition process will be faster and the vermicompost will be ready sooner. The number of earthworms increases by 10 times if the leaves of Glycerdia are placed on the earthworm bed and a 4 inch thick layer of dung is applied on it.

Methods of vermicomposting:

Vermicompost can be prepared by both mound and pit methods. However, both methods require artificial shade. Roof sheds should be constructed to protect them from sunlight and rain. The length of this shed should be 4.25 m for two mounds and 7.50 m for four mounds. The shelter should be sloping on both sides of the shed. The height of side pillars should be 1.25 to 1.50 m and the height of middle pillars should be 2.25 to 2.50 m. Use grass, paddy straw, coconut husks, cotton or turmeric sticks, sorghum trays, thick plastic paper or cement or iron sheets for roofing. Choose the right variety of earthworm to make vermicompost.

Heap method:

Earthworms-Vermicomposting HeapApproximately 2.5 to 3.0 m. Length and 90 cm. Make piles of width. First the soil should be watered and moistened. At the bottom of the mound 3 to 5 cm of non-perishable substances like coconut husk, grass, rice husk etc. I Form a thick layer, sprinkle enough water on it and make it wet. 3 to 5 sec on this layer. I Apply a layer of semi-decomposed dung, compost or sifted garden soil. Full grown earthworms should be gently released on this layer. Normally 100 kg. 7,000 adult earthworms should be released to make vermicompost from grams of organic matter. On the second layer, crop residues, animal manure, grain bran, field weeds, leaves of dicotyledonous green trees like Giripushpa Shevari, manure manure, hen droppings etc. should be used. It is better to use these organic substances in small pieces and in partially decomposed form. The carbon : nitrogen ratio should be between 30 and 40. Care should be taken that the height of the entire mound does not exceed 60. Rotting organic matter should contain 40 to 50% water. For this, cover the mound with gonapat and spray water daily. Care should be taken to keep the temperature of the organic matter in the heap between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius.

Pit method:

Earthworms-Vermicomposting PeatIn this method cement pits are 3 m long, 2 m wide and 60 cm deep. I Should be kept. At the bottom of the pits, coconut husk, grass, rice bran, wheat bran 3 to 5 cm. I Apply a layer of partially decomposed dung, compost or sifted soil in the garden. Wet both the layers completely with water and apply about 100 kg. Solve 7,000 adult earthworms to make vermicompost from gram organic matter. A maximum of 50 cm of semi-decomposed organic matter is placed on it. Form a thick layer. Always keep it wet by covering it with gonapat. For the growth of earthworms, air must be circulated in the organic matter in the pit. For this, if the layer of organic matter thickens, loosen it by hand. So the temperature in the pit will be controlled. The cone shape of the vermicompost made in this way should be piled up. Separate the manure from the top of the mound and dry it in the shade. Worms separated after sieving, they should use the chicks and testicles to make vermicompost again.

Fertilizer preparation period

It usually takes 35 to 50 days to make vermicompost using earthworms.

Important matters for making vermicompost

The vermicompost project should be in a shady and humid ventilated place.Manure and field crop residues and plant leaves should be in the ratio of 3: 1 and all these should be decomposed for 15-20 days before release of earthworms. at the bottom of the pit, first add 15 to 20 cm of finely chopped dried leaves.Water the Earthworms for 1 day before releasing the Earthworms. Water the earthworms daily or depending on the temperature of the atmosphere. There should be a special net for the vermicompost to collect the vermiwash, plan to collect the vermiwash by digging a hole there


Isolation of Vermicompost

Assume that the manure is formed when the color of the manure turns dark brown. Watering should be stopped when manure is ready. When the top layer is a little dry, remove the whole vermicompost from the bed. Should take. In 3-4 hours, all the earthworms should be left in the bed / pit for composting. In the same way, vermicompost can be prepared by pit, pot or tank method. In addition to this, as a second method, lightly collect the Vermicompost layer prepared on the mattress and add new food on the mattress. This vermicompost consists of a mixture of earthworm eggs, their droppings and decomposed manure. Such earthworm manure can be used in the field. Apply this fertilizer at the rate of 5 tons per hectare per year for different crops. With prepared manure-worms

Benefits of Vermicomposting:

  1. Improves soil texture.
  2. Appropriate changes are made in the composition of the soil particles.
  3. Worm weevils provide excellent cultivation without damaging the roots of the plant.
  4. Increases the water holding capacity of the soil.
  5. Soil erosion is reduced.
  6. Evaporation rate decreases.
  7. Soil level (pH) is maintained at proper level.
  8. The earthworms bring the soil from the lower layer to the surface and make it better.
  9. As Vermicompost is rich in humus, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other micronutrients are abundant and readily available to plants.
  10. The number of useful bacteria in the soil increases exponentially.
  11. There was also wet waste management
  12. Soil fertility is maintained
  13. This fertilizer keeps the microorganisms in the soil alive.
  14. This fertilizer keeps the soil fertile.

Also Read: how to reduce food waste by other methodes.

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